Aṅguttara Nikāya
017. Jāṇussoṇivaggo - The section to the Brahmin Janussoni

1. Brāhmaṇapacorohaṇīsuttaṃ - The fire worship of the Brahmins

167. On that full moon day the Brahmin Janussoni having bathed and dressed in a suit of linen cloth, with some freshly plucked grass in his fist, was standing close to The Blessed One. The Blessed One saw the Brahmin Janussoni bathed and dressed in a suit of linen cloth, with some freshly plucked grass in his fist standing close to him, and said:

“Brahmin, on this full moon day, having bathed and dressed in a suit of linen cloth and with some freshly plucked grass in your hand, why do you stand here? What is the significance of the day to the Brahmin clans?

“Good Gotama, today is the day of going down to the holy fire, for the Brahmin clans.

“How do the Brahmins observe the day of going down to the holy fire?

“Here, good Gotama, on the full moon day, the Brahmins bathe and dress in a suit of linen cloth, rub wet cow dung on the ground, spread some grass on the ground and lie on the grass at the right time inside the fire house. During that night they get up three times and worship the fire with clasped hands saying: `Good one, we worship you!' They feed the fire with much ghee, oil and butter. At the end of that night they feed the Brahmins with nourishing eatables and drinks. Good Gotama, this is the ceremony of going down to the holy fire, done by the Brahmins.

“ Brahmin, going down to the holy fire in the noble ones' discipline is something different from this.

“Venerable sir, what is, going down to the holy fire in the noble ones' discipline? It is good if I be taught the going down to the holy fire in the noble ones; discipline.

“Then Brahmin, listen and attend carefully I will tell.

Here, Brahmin, the noble disciple reflects:

Results for destroying living things is in this very life and also after death. Judging carefully he gives up and steps down from destroying living things.

Results for taking the not given is in this very life and also after death. Judging carefully he gives up and steps down from taking the not given.

Results for sexual misbehaviour is in this very life and also after death. Judging carefully he gives up and steps down from sexual misbehaviour.

Results for telling lies is in this very life and also after death. Judging carefully he gives up and steps down from telling lies.

Results for slandering is in this very life and also after death. Judging carefully he gives up and steps down from slandering.

Results for talking roughly is in this very life and also after death. Judging carefully he gives up and steps down from talking roughly.

Results for frivolous talk is in this very life and also after death. Judging carefully he gives up and steps down from frivolous talk.

Results for coveting is in this very life and also after death. Judging carefully he gives up and steps down from coveting.

Results for hatred is in this very life and also after death. Judging carefully he gives up and steps down from hating.

Results for wrong view is in this very life and also after death. Judging carefully he gives up and steps down from wrong view.

“Good Gotama, attending to the holy fire in the discipline of the noble ones is different from the Brahmins' attending the holy fire. The Brahmins' attending to the holy fire is not worth one sixteenth part to attending to the holy fire in the discipline of the noble ones. Good Gotama, now I undersstand, ... re ... bear `as a lay disciple who has taken refuge from today until life lasts.

2. Ariyapaccorohanīsuttaṃ - The noble attending to the holy fire

168. Bhikkhus, I will teach the noble attending to the holy fire, listen and attend to it carefully. Bhikkhus, how is the noble attending to the holy fire?

Here, Brahmin, the noble disciple reflects:

Results for destroying living things is in this very life and also after death. Judging carefully he gives up and steps down from destroying living things.

Results for taking the not given is in this very life and also after death. Judging carefully he gives up and steps down from taking the not given.

Results for sexual misbehaviour is in this very life and also after death. Judging carefully he gives up and steps down from sexual misbehaviour.

Results for telling lies is in this very life and also after death. Judging carefully he gives up and steps down from telling lies.

Results for slandering is in this very life and also after death. Judging carefully he gives up and steps down from slandering.

Results for talking roughly is in this very life and also after death. Judging carefully he gives up and steps down from talking roughly.

Results for frivolous talk is in this very life and also after death. Judging carefully he gives up and steps down from frivolous talk.

Results for coveting is in this very life and also after death. Judging carefully he gives up and steps down from coveting.

Results for hatred is in this very life and also after death. Judging carefully he gives up and steps down from hating.

Results for wrong view is in this very life and also after death. Judging carefully he gives up and steps down from wrong view.

3. Saṇgāravasuttaṃ - The Brahmin Sangarava

169. The Brahmin Sangarava approached The Blessed One, exchanged friendly greetings, sat on a side and said to The Blessed One:

“Good Gotama, what is the hither shore and what is the thither shore?

“Brahmin, destroying living things is the hither shore, abstaining from destroying living things is the thither shore. Taking the not given is the hither shore, abstaining from taking the not given is the thither shore. Sexual misbehaviour is the hither shore, abstaining from sexual misbehaviour is the thither shore. Telling lies is the hither shore, abstaining from telling lies is the thither shore. Slandering is the hither shore, abstaining from slander is thither shore. Rough talk is hither shore, abstaining from rough talk is thither shore. Frivolous talk is hither shore, abstaining from frivolous talk is thither shore. Coveting is hither shore, abstaining from coveting is thither shore. hatred is hither shore, non-hate is thither shore. Wrong view is hither shore, right view is thither shore.

A few humans cross to the other shore,
The rest run up and down this shore.
Those who lead a life according to the Teaching, well declared,
Cross to the other shore, away from the domains of Death.
The wise throw away dark things and develop pure things
Becoming homeless, they delight in seclusion, difficult to delight,
They delight in it, giving up all traces of sensuality
The wise clean themselves, throwing out their defilements.
And thoroughly develop the enlightenment factors.
Giving up their seizings, are not attached.
The bright ones without desires for this world, are extinguished.

4. Orimasuttaṃ - The hither shore

170. “Bhikkhus, I will teach the hither shore and the thither shore, listen and attend carefully.

Bhikkhus, what is the hither shore and what is the thither shore?

“Bhikkhus, destroying living things is the hither shore, abstaining from destroying living things is the thither shore. Taking the not given is the hither shore, abstaining from taking the not given is the thither shore. Sexual misbehaviour is the hither shore, abstaining from sexual misbehaviour is the thither shore. Telling lies is the hither shore, abstaining from telling lies is the thither shore. Slandering is the hither shore, abstaining from slander is thither shore. Rough talk is hither shore, abstaining from rough talk is thither shore. Frivolous talk is hither shore, abstaining from frivolous talk is thither shore. Coveting is hither shore, abstaining from coveting is thither shore. hatred is hither shore, non-hate is thither shore. Wrong view is hither shore, right view is thither shore.

A few humans cross to the other shore,
The rest run up and down this shore.
Those who lead a life according to the Teaching, well declared,
Cross to the other shore, away from the domains of Death.
The wise throw away dark things and develop pure things
Becoming homeless, they delight in seclusion, difficult to delight,
They delight in it, giving up all traces of sensuality
The wise clean themselves, throwing out their defilements.
And thoroughly develop the enlightenment factors.
Giving up their seizings, are not attached.
The bright ones without desires for this world, are extinguished.

5. Paṭhama - adhammasuttaṃ - First on Unrighteousness

171. Bhikkhus, the unrighteous and the not useful should be known. The righteous and the useful should be known and you should fall to the method of the righteous and useful.

Bhikkhus, what is the unrighteous, useless?

Destroying living things, taking the not given, sexual misbehaviour, telling lies, slandering, rough talk, frivolous talk, coveting, hate and wrong view are unrighteous and useless .

Bhikkhus, what is the righteous and useful?

Abstaining from destroying living things, taking the not given, sexual misbehaviour, telling lies, slandering, rough talk, frivolous talk, coveting, hate and wrong view are righteous and useful.

Bhikkhus, if it was said, the unrighteous and the not useful should be known. The righteous and useful should be known and you should fall to the method which is righteous and useful, it was said on account of this.

6. Dutiya - adhammasuttaṃ - Second on unrighteousness

172. “Bhikkhus, the unrighteous and the righteous should be known. The useless and the useful should be known and you should fall to the method which is righteous and useful. The Blessed One said this much and went to the monastery.

Then, soon after The Blessed One had gone, it occured to those bhikkhus, The Blessed One has given us a short exposition, without explaining it has got up and gone to the monastery.- `Bhikkhus, the unrighteous and the righteous should be known. The useless and the useful should be known and you should fall to the method, which is righteous and useful.' “Who could explain this short exposition given by The Blessed One?

Then it occured to those bhikkhus: `There is venerable Mahakaccana, praised by the Teacher out of the wise co-associates of the holy life. It is possible for venerable Mahakaccana to explain this short exposition given by The Blessed One. What if we approach venerable Mahakaccana and ask him to explain this short exposition given by The Blessed One. As venerable Mahakaccana explains it, we bhikkhus will bear it in mind.

Those bhikkhus approached venerable Mahakaccana, exchanged friendly greetings, sat on a side and said:

“Here, friend, Mahakaccana, The Blessed One gave us this short exposition `Bhikkhus, the unrighteous and the righteous should be known. The useless and the useful should be known and you should fall to the method, which is righteous and useful. The Blessed One said this much and went to the monastery.

Then, soon after The Blessed One had gone, it occured to us, The Blessed One has given us a short exposition, without explaining it, has got up and gone to the monastery- `Bhikkhus, the unrighteous and the righteous should be known. The useless and the useful should be known and you should fall to the method, which is righteous and useful.' “Who could explain this short exposition given by The Blessed One?

Then it occured to us: `There is venerable Mahakaccana praised by the Teacher out of the wise co-associates of the holy life. It is possible for venerable Mahakaccana to explain this short exposition given by The Blessed One. What if we approach venerable Mahakaccana and ask him to explain this short exposition given by The Blessed One. As venerable Mahakaccana explains it, we bhikkhus will bear it in mind. Friend, Mahakaccana, explain this to us.

“Friends, this is like a man in search of the heartwood, going to a huge, standing tree full of heartwood ignoring its root, and trunk were to search the heartwood in the branches and leaves. The venerable ones ignoring The Blessed One's presence should think to ask the meaning from me. Friends, The Blessed One knows what should be known, sees what should be seen, has understood the Teaching has become the Teaching and has become brahma. Practises what he says, leads to the meanings, gives the deathless, is the master of the Teaching. This is the time to ask the meaning from him. As The Blessed One explains, bear it in mind.

“Indeed, friend, The Blessed One knows what should be known, sees what should be seen, has understood the Teaching has become the Teaching and has become brahma. Practises what he says, leads to the meanings, gives the deathless, is the master of the Teaching and this is the time to ask the meaning from The Blessed One and bear it in mind. Yet, venerable Mahakaccana is praised, as developed out of the co-associates in the holy life, by the Teacher. Venerable Mahakaccana can explain this short exposition given by The Blessed One. Friend, explain it, if it is no problem.

“Then. friends, listen and attend carefully, I will tell. This short exposition was given by The Blessed One, without explaining it The Blessed One got up from his seat and went to the monastery. Such as: `Bhikkhus, the unrighteous and the righteous should be known. The useless and the useful should be known and you should fall to the method which is righteous and useful.' .

Friends, what is the unrighteous and the righteous, what is the useless and useful?

Friends, destroying living things is unrighteous, abstaining from destroying living things righteous. On account of destroying living things various, useless, evil demeritorious things arise, they are useless. On account of abstaining from destroying living things various useful meritorious things develop and get completed, they are useful.

Friends, taking the not given is unrighteous, abstaining from taking the not given is righteous. On account of taking the not given various useless evil demeritorious things arise, they are useless. On account of abstaining from taking the not given various useful meritorious things develop and get completed, they are useful.

Friends, sexual misconduct is unrighteous, the right sexual conduct is righteous. On account of sexual misconduct various useless evil demeritorious things arise, they are useless. On account of the right sexual conduct various useful meritorious things develop and get completed, they are useful.

Friends, telling lies is unrighteous, abstaining from telling lies is righteous. On account of telling lies various, useless, evil, demeritorious things arise, they are useless. On account of abstaining from telling lies various useful meritorious things develop and get completed, they are useful.

Friends, slandering is unrighteous, abstaining from slandering is righteous. On account of slandering various, useless, evil, demeritorious things arise, they are useless. On account of abstaining from slandering various, useful meritorious things develop and get completed, they are useful.

Friends, rough talk is unrighteous, abstaining from rough talk is righteous. On account of rough talk various, useless, evil, demeritorious things arise, they are useless. On account of abstaining from rough talk various useful meritorious things develop and get completed, they are useful.

Friends, frivolous talk is unrighteous, abstaining from frivolous talk is righteous. On account of frivolous talk various useless, evil, demeritorious things arise, they are useless. On account of abstaining from frivolous talk various useful meritorious things develop and get completed, they are useful.

Friends, coveting is unrighteous, not coveting is righteous. On account of coveting various, useless, evil, demeritorious things arise, they are useless. On account of not coveting, various, useful, meritorious things develop and get completed, they are useful.

Friends, hate is unrighteous, not hating is righteous. On account of hating various useless evil demeritorious things arise, they are useless. On account of not hating various, useful, meritorious things develop and get completed, they are useful.

Friends, wrong view is unrighteous, right view is righteous. On account of wrong view various useless, evil, demeritorious things arise, they are useless. On account of right view various useful meritorious things develop and get completed, they are useful.

Friends, of the short expositin, `The unrighteous and the righteous should be known. The useless and the useful should be known and you should fall to the method, which is righteous and useful' I understand the detailed meaning in this manner. If you desire, approach The Blessed One and ask. As The Blessed One explains it, bear it in mind.

Those bhikkhus, agreeing and delighting in the words of venerable Mahakaccana, got up from their seats and approached The Blessed One, worshipped, sat on a side and said:

“Venerable sir, The Blessed One gave us this short exposition and without explaining, got up from his seat and went into the monastery `The righteous ... re ... which is righteous and useful'

Then, venerable sir, soon after The Blessed One had gone, it occured to us, The Blessed One has given us a short exposition, without explaining it has got up and gone to the monastery- `Bhikkhus, the unrighteous and the righteous should be known. The useless and the useful should be known and you should fall to the method, of the Teaching which is righteous and useful.' “Who could explain this short exposition given by The Blessed One?

Then it occured to us: `There is venerable Mahakaccana, praised by the Teacher out of the wise co-associates of the holy life. It is possible for venerable Mahakaccana to explain this short exposition given by The Blessed One. What if we approach venerable Mahakaccana and ask him to explain this short exposition given by The Blessed One. As venerable Mahakaccana explains it, we bhikkhus will bear it in mind. Then we said. Friend, Mahakaccana, explain this to us. Venerable Mahakaccana explained it to us in this manner, with these phrases and words.

Excellent! bhikkhus, Mahakaccana is very wise, if you had asked me I too would have explained it, in the same manner. This is its meaning bear it in mind.

7. Tatiya - adhammasuttaṃ - The third on unrighteousness

173. Bhikkhus, the unrighteous and the righteous should be known, the useless and the useful should be known. Knowing should fall to the method of the righteous and the useful.

Bhikkhus, what is the unrighteous and the righteous? What is the useless and the useful?

Bhikkhus, destroying living things is unrighteous, abstaining from destroying living things is righteous. On account of destroying living things various, useless, evil demeritorious things arise, they are useless. On account of abstaining from destroying living things various useful meritorious things develop and get completed, they are useful.

Bhikkhus, taking the not given is unrighteous, abstaining from taking the not given is righteous. On account of taking the not given various useless evil demeritorious things arise, they are useless. On account of abstaining from taking the not given various useful meritorious things develop and get completed, they are useful.

Bhikkhus, sexual misconduct is unrighteous, the right sexual conduct is righteous. On account of sexual misconduct various useless evil demeritorious things arise, they are useless. On account of the right sexual conduct various useful meritorious things develop and get completed, they are useful.

Bhikkhus, telling lies is unrighteous, abstaining from telling lies is righteous. On account of telling lies various, useless, evil, demeritorious things arise, they are useless. On account of abstaining from telling lies various useful meritorious things develop and get completed, they are useful.

Bhikkhus, slandering is unrighteous, abstaining from slandering is righteous. On account of slandering various, useless, evil, demeritorious things arise, they are useless. On account of abstaining from slandering various, useful meritorious things develop and get completed, they are useful.

Bhikkhus, rough talk is unrighteous, abstaining from rough talk is righteous. On account of rough talk various, useless, evil, demeritorious things arise, they are useless. On account of abstaining from rough talk various useful meritorious things develop and get completed, they are useful.

Bhikkhus, frivolous talk is unrighteous, abstaining from frivolous talk is righteous. On account of frivolous talk various useless, evil, demeritorious things arise, they are useless. On account of abstaining from frivolous talk various useful meritorious things develop and get completed, they are useful.

Bhikkhus, coveting is unrighteous, not coveting is righteous. On account of coveting various, useless, evil, demeritorious things arise, they are useless. On account of not coveting, various, useful, meritorious things develop and get completed, they are useful.

Bhikkhus, hate is unrighteous, not hating is righteous. On account of hating various useless evil demeritorious things arise, they are useless. On account of not hating various, useful, meritorious things develop and get completed, they are useful.

Bhikkhus, wrong view is unrighteous, right view is righteous. On account of wrong view various useless, evil, demeritorious things arise, they are useless. On account of right view various useful meritorious things develop and get completed, they are useful.

Bhikkhus, if it was said, `The unrighteous and the righteous should be known. The useless and the useful should be known and you should fall to the method, which is righteous and useful, it was said on account of this.

8. Kammanidānasuttaṃ - The roots of actions

174. Bhikkhus, I say, even destroying living things is done for three reasons, for greed, hate and delusion.

Bhikkhus, I say, even taking the not given is done for three reasons, for greed, hate and delusion.

Bhikkhus, I say, even sexual misconduct is done for three reasons, for greed, hate and delusion.

Bhikkhus, I say, even telling lies is done for three reasons, for greed, hate and delusion.

Bhikkhus, I say, even slandering is done for three reasons, for greed, hate and delusion.

Bhikkhus, I say, even talking roughly is done for three reasons, for greed, hate and delusion.

Bhikkhus, I say, even frivolous talk is done for three reasons, for greed, hate and delusion.

Bhikkhus, I say, even coveting is done for three reasons, for greed, hate and delusion.

Bhikkhus, I say, even bearing the angry mind is done for three reasons, for greed, hate and delusion.

Bhikkhus, I say, even wrong view is for three reasons, for greed, hate and delusion.

Thus bhikkhus, greed is an origin of action, hate is an origin of action and delusion is an origin of action.

When greed is destroyed the roots of actions is destroyed. When hate is destroyed the roots of actions is destroyed. When delusion is destroyed the roots of actions is destroyed.

9. Parikkamanasuttaṃ Accessible

175. Bhikkhus, this Teaching is with accessibility. How is the Teaching with accessibility?

Bhikkhus, to one destroying living things, abstaining from destroying living things is accessible. Bhikkhus, to one taking the not given, abstaining from taking the not given is accessible.Bhikkhus, to one sexually misbehaving, abstaining from sexual misbehavior is accessible. Bhikkhus, to one telling lies, abstaining from telling lies is accessible. Bhikkhus, to one slandering, abstaining from slander is accessible. Bhikkhus, to one talking roughly, abstaining from rough talk is accessible. Bhikkhus, to one talking frivolously, abstaining from frivolous talk is accessible.Bhikkhus, to one coveting, abstaining from coveting is accessible. Bhikkhus, to one with anger, putting an end to anger is accessible. Bhikkhus, to one with wrong view, becoming one of right view is accessible. Thus bhikkhus, this Teaching is with accessibility.

10. Cundasuttaṃ - To Cundakammaraputta

176. I heard thus. At one time The Blessed One was abiding in Pava in Cundakammaraputta's mango orchard. Then Cundakammaraputta approached The Blessed One, worshipped and sat on a side. The Blessed One said to him: “Cunda, how do you give your consent to the purification?

“Venerable sir, the Brahmins face the west, with the water spout in hand, wearing special garlands attend to the holy fire, then descend the water and give the consent for the purification Here I am one who has given the consent for the purification.

“Cunda, how do the Brahmins face the west, with the water spout in the hand, wearing special garlands attend to the holy fire descend the water and appoint the purification?

“Here, venerable sir, the Brahmins face the west, with the water spout in the hand, wearing special garlands attend to the holy fire descend the water and instruct the disciples: `Come good ones, get up early in the morning sweep the floor. If you do not sweep the floor, smear some wet cow dung on the floor. If you do not smear some wet cow dung, spread some green grass on the ground. If you do not spread some green grass on the ground, attend to the fire. If you do not attend to the fire, worship the sun with clasped hands. If you do not worship the sun with clasped hands, descend to the water up to the third time. Thus venerable sir, the Brahmins appoint the purification by turning to the west, taking the water spout in the hand, wearing garlands of special flowers,attending to the fire, worshipping the sun with clasped hands and descending to water and I have got their consent for the purification.

“Cunda, the purification in the discipline of the noble ones is different from the Brahmins' purifiaction, such as turning to the west, taking the water spout in the hand, wearing garlands of special flowers, attending to the fire and descending to water.

“Venerable sir, how is the purification in the discipline of the noble ones. It is suitable that I should be taught the purification in the discipline of the noble ones.

“Then Cunda, listen and attend carefully.: Cunda, there comes bodily impurity in three ways. Verbal impurity in four ways and mental impurity in three ways.

Cunda, what are the three ways of bodily impurity?

Here, Cunda, a certain one destroys living things, is cruel with bloody hands, is engaged in destruction, without compassion for any living thing.

Takes the not given, gone to the village or forest takes the not given with a thievish mind.

Misbehaves sexually with those protected by the mother, father, mother and father, brother, sister, relations, the clan, protected by the Teaching, with those who have a husband and liable to be punished or even someone who is garlanded at a ceremony. Cunda, one becomes bodily impure in these three ways.

Cunda, what are the four ways of verbal impurity?

Here, Cunda, a certain one tells lies. Gone to an assembly, in a gathering, amidst relations, or gone to the guild or in the midst of royality, when asked to stand witness, not knowing says I know. Knowing, says I do not know. Not seeing says I saw, or seeing, says I did not see. Thus for personal reasons or for another's good or for some small material thing he tells lies with awareness.

Here, someone slanders, hearing it here, tells it there, to split these. Hearing it there, tells it here to split those. Thus he splits the united, does not unite the torn apart, fond of dissension talks words to disunite.

Here someone talks rough words, that are sharp and piercing, words that curse others. Talks angry words that are not conducive to concentration.

Someone talks frivolously at the wrong time, the not truthful, unrighteous, useless words, not in accordance with the Teaching and the Discipline This is the four ways of verbal impurity.

Cunda, what is the three ways of mental impurity?

Here, a certain one covets. Seeing someone's belongings thinks they should be mine.

Here someone is angry, with defiled thoughts. May these beings be destroyed, may they be broken and disappear, may they not be.

Here, someone with wrong view has a reversed vision-'There is no good in giving, in a sacrifice or offering. There are no results for good or evil actions. There is no this world, no other world, no mother, no father. There are no spontaneously arisen beings. In this world there are no recluses and Brahmins, who have come to the right path have realized this world and the other world by themselves and declare it. Thus Cunda, there is impurity of the mind in three ways.

Cunda, these are the ten evil ways of acting. Endowed with these ten evil ways of acting, even if you get up early in the morning and sweep the floor it is impure, or do not sweep the floor, yet it is impure.

Even if you smear wet cow dung on the floor, it is impure, or do not smear wet cow dung on the floor, yet it is impure.

Even if you spread green grass on the floor it is impure, or do not spread green grass on the floor, yet it is impure.

Even if you attend to the fire it is impure, or do not attend to the fire, yet it is impure.

Even if you worship the sun with clasped hands it is impure, or do not worship the sun with clasped hands, yet it is impure.

Even if you descend to the water up to the third time it is impure, or do not descend to the water up to the third time, yet it is impure. What is the eason?

Cunda, because these ten evil ways of acting go on making you impure.

Cunda, on account of acting endowed with these ten evil ways of acting, birth in hell, in the animal world, or among ghosts is apparent.

Cunda, there comes bodily purity in three ways. Verbal purity in four ways and mental purity in three ways.

Cunda, what are the three ways of bodily purity?

Here, Cunda, a certain one giving up destroying living things, become ashamed, throws away stick and weapon, arousing compassion for all living things.

Abstains from taking the not given, gone to the village or forest does not take the not given with a thievish mind.

Gives up sexual misbehaviour with those protected by the mother, father, mother and father, brother, sister, relations, the clan, protected by the Teaching, with those who have a husband and liable to be punished or even someone who is garlanded at a ceremony. Cunda, one becomes bodily pure in these three ways.

Cunda, what are the four ways of verbal impurity?

Here, Cunda, a certain one abstains from telling lies. Gone to an assembly, in a gathering, amidst relations, or gone to the guild or in the midst of royality, when asked to stand witness, knowing says I know. Not knowing, says I do not know. Not seeing says I did not see, or seeing, says I saw. Thus for personal reasons or for another's good or for some small material thing he does not tell lies with awareness.

Does not slander, hearing it here, does not tell it there, to split these. Hearing it there, does not tell it here to split those. Thus he does not split the united, unites the torn apart, not fond of dissension talks words to unite.

Does not talk rough words, that are sharp and piercing, words that curse others. Does not talk angry words that are not conducive to concentration.

Does not talk frivolously, at the wrong time, talks truthful, righteous, useful words, in accordance with the Teaching and the Discipline This is the four ways of verbal purity.

Cunda, what is the three ways of mental purity?

Does not covet. Seeing someone's belongings does not think they should be mine.

Is not angry, is without defiled thoughts. Thinks may these beings be well and happy, may they maintain themselves with mental health.

Is with right view without a reversed vision-'There is good in giving, in a sacrifice and in an offering. There are results for good or evil actions. There is this world and other world, mother, father. There are spontaneously arisen beings. In this world there are recluses and Brahmins, who have come to the right path have realized this world and the other world by themselves and declare it. Thus Cunda, there is purity of the mind in three ways.

Cunda, these are the ten good ways of acting. Endowed with these ten good ways of acting, even if you get up early in the morning and sweep the floor it is pure, or do not sweep the floor, yet it is pure.

Even if you smear wet cow dung on the floor, it is pure, or do not smear wet cow dung on the floor, yet it is pure.

Even if you spread green grass on the floor it is pure, or do not spread green grass on the floor, yet it is pure.

Even if you attend to the fire it is pure, or do not attend to the fire, yet it is pure.

Even if you worship the sun with clasped hands it is pure, or do not worship the sun with clasped hands, yet it is pure.

Even if you descend to the water up to the third time it is pure, or do not descend to the water up to the third time, yet it is pure. What is the eason?

Cunda, because these ten good ways of acting go on making you pure.

Cunda, on account of acting endowed with these ten good ways of acting, birth as a god, a human, or any other good state is apparent.

When this was said Cundakammaraputta said to The Blessed One: - Venerable sir, now I understand, ... re ... I am a lay disciple who has taken refuge from today until life lasts.

11. Jānussoṇisuttaṃ - To the Brahmin Janussoni

177. Then the Brahmin Janussoni approached The Blessed One, exchanged friendly greetings, sat on a side and said to The Blessed One:

“Good Gotama, we Brahmins give gifts with the faith, on acount of giving these gifts, may merit accrue to our dead, blood relations. Venerable sir, how much of those merits accrued from giving gifts are partaken by our dead blood relations?

“In certain circumstances they accrue to them and in other circumstances they do not accrue to them.

` Good Gotama, in what circumstances do they accrue and in what circumstances do they not accrue?

“Here, Brahmin, a certain one destroys living things, takes the not given, misbehaves sexually, tells lies, slanders, talks roughly, talks frivolously, covets, bears an angry mind and upholds wrong view. After death he is born in hell. He is fed with the food available in the hell. In those circumstances the merits accruing from those gifts are not partaken by him.

Here, Brahmin, a certain one destroys living things, takes the not given, misbehaves sexually, tells lies, slanders, talks roughly, talks frivolously, covets, bears an angry mind and upholds wrong view. After death he is born with the animals. He is fed with the food available in the animal world. In those circumstances the merits accruing from those gifts are not partaken by him.

Here, Brahmin, a certain one abstains from destroying living things, taking the not given, misbehaving sexually, telling lies, slandering, talking roughly, talking frivolously, coveting, bearing an angry mind and upholds right view. After death he is born with humans. He is fed with the food available to his parents. In those circumstances the merits accruing from those gifts are not partaken by him.

Here, Brahmin, a certain one abstains from destroying living things, taking the not given, misbehaving sexually, telling lies, slandering, talking roughly, talking frivolously, coveting, bearing an angry mind and upholds right view. After death he is born with the gods. There he partakes heavenly food. In those circumstances the merits accruing from those gifts are not partaken by him.

Here, Brahmin, a certain one destroys living things, takes the not given, misbehaves sexually, tells lies, slanders, talks roughly, talks frivolously, covets, bears an angry mind and upholds wrong view. After death he is born with the ghosts and partakes food in that sphere. He partakes the merits confered by his friends and blood relations In those circumstances the merits accruing from those gifts are partaken by him.

“Good Gotama, if that blood relation is not born with ghosts, who partakes the merits accrued by those gifts?

“Brahmin, there are other blood relations born in that sphere and they partake the merits accrued by giving those gifts.

“Good Gotama, if that blood relation is not born with ghosts and other blood relations are not born with ghosts, who partakes the merits accrued by giving those gifts?

“Brahmin, it is not possible that the sphere of ghosts be vacant of blood relations after this long period of time. Yet Brahmin, it is not without results for the giver.

“Does good Gotama tell of fixations in other circumstances?

“Here, Brahmin, a certain one destroys living things, takes the not given, misbehaves sexually, tells lies, slanders, talks roughly, talks frivolously, covets, bears an angry mind and upholds wrong view. He offers eatables, drinks, clothes, conveyances, garlands, scents, ointments, beds, dwellings and lights to recluses and Brahmins. After death he is born with elephants. There he gains eatables, drinks and decorative garlands.

Brahamin, on acount of destroying living things, taking the not given, misbehaving sexually, telling lies, slandering, talking roughly, talking frivolously, coveting, bearing an angry mind and upholding wrong view, he is born with the elephants. On account of offering eatables, drinks, clothes, conveyances, garlands, scents, ointments, beds, dwellings and lights to recluses and Brahmins, there he gains eatables, drinks and decorative garlands.

Here, Brahmin, a certain one destroys living things, takes the not given, misbehaves sexually, tells lies, slanders, talks roughly, talks frivolously, covets, bears an angry mind and upholds wrong view. He offers eatables, drinks, clothes, conveyances, garlands, scents, ointments, beds, dwellings and lights to recluses and Brahmins. After death he is born with the horses ... re ... born with the cattle ... re ... with the fowl. There he gains eatables, drinks and decorative garlands.

Brahamin, on acount of destroying living things, taking the not given, misbehaving sexually, telling lies, slandering, talking roughly, talking frivolously, coveting, bearing an angry mind and upholding wrong view, he is born with the fowl. On account of offering eatables, drinks, clothes, conveyances, garlands, scents, ointments, beds, dwellings and lights to recluses and Brahmins, there he gains eatables, drinks and decorative garlands.

Here, Brahmin, a certain one abstains from destroying living things, taking the not given, misbehaving sexually, telling lies, slandering, talking roughly, talking frivolously, coveting, bearing an angry mind and upholds right view. He offers eatables, drinks, clothes, conveyances, garlands, scents, ointments, beds, dwellings and lights to recluses and Brahmins. After death he is born with humans. There he gains the five strands of sense pleasures enjoyed by humans.

On account of abstaining from destroying living things, ... re ... and upholding right view, he was born with humans and on account of offering eatables, drinks, clothes, conveyances, garlands, scents, ointments, beds, dwellings and lights to recluses and Brahmins, there he gains the five strands of sense pleasures enjoyed by humans.

Here, Brahmin, a certain one abstains from destroying living things, taking the not given, misbehaving sexually, telling lies, slandering, talking roughly, talking frivolously, coveting, bearing an angry mind and upholds right view. He offers eatables, drinks, clothes, conveyances, garlands, scents, ointments, beds, dwellings and lights to recluses and Brahmins. After death he is born with the gods. There he gains the five strands of heavenly sense pleasures enjoyed by gods.

On account of abstaining from destroying living things, ... re ... and upholding right view, he was born with the gods and on account of offering eatables, drinks, clothes, conveyances, garlands, scents, ointments, beds, dwellings and lights to recluses and Brahmins, there he gains the five strands of heavenly sense pleasures enjoyed by gods.

Good Gotama, it is wonderful and surprising, from today I am a lay disciple who has taken refuge until life lasts.