Aṅguttara Nikāya
007. Mahavagga- The greater section

1. Hiri-ottappasuttaṃ- Shame and remorse.

007.01. Bhikkhus, when shame and remorse are not present, gone wrong in shame and remorse the restraint of the mental faculties are deceptive. When restraint of the mental faculties are not present, gone wrong in the restraint of the mental faculties virtues are deceptive When virtues are not present, gone wrong in virtues, concentration is deceptive. When concentration is not present, gone wrong in concentration, knowledge and insight of seeing as it really is, is deceptive. When the knowledge and vision of seeing as it really is, is not present, gone wrong in the knowledge and vision of seeing as it really is, turning away and disenchantment is deceptive. When turning away and disenchanatment are not present, gone wrong in turning away and disenchantment, the knowledge and vision of release is deceptive. Bhikkhus, a tree that has lost branches and leaves, does not fully develop the shoots, the bark, the sap wood nor the heartwood. Bhikkhus, in the same manner, when shame and remorse are not present, gone wrong in shame and remorse the restraint of the mental faculties are deceptive. When the restraint of the mental faculties are not present, gone wrong in the restraint of the mental faculties virtues are deceptive When virtues are not present, gone wrong in virtues, concentration is deceptive. When concentration is not present, gone wrong in concentration, knowledge and insight of seeing as it really is, is deceptive. When the knowledge and vision of seeing as it really is, is not present, gone wrong in the knowledge and vision of seeing as it really is, turning away and disenchantment is deceptive. When turning away and disenchanatment are not present, gone wrong in turning away and disenchantment, the knowledge and vision of release is deceptive.

Bhikkhus, when shame and remorse are present, not gone wrong, in shame and remorse the restraint of the mental faculties are not deceptive. When the restraint of the mental faculties are present, not gone wrong, in the restraint of the mental faculties virtues are not deceptive When virtues are present, not gone wrong in virtues, concentration is not deceptive. When concentration is present, not gone wrong in con centration, knowledge and insight of seeing as it really is, is not deceptive. When the knowledge and vision of seeing as it really is, is present, not gone wrong in the knowledge and vision of seeing as it really is, turning away and disenchantment is not deceptive. When turning away and disenchanatment are present, not gone wrong in turning away and disenchantment, the knowledge and vision of release is not deceptive. Bhikkhus, a tree endowd with branches and leaves, fully develops the shoots, the bark, the sap wood and the heartwood. Bhikkhus, in the same manner, when shame and remorse are present, not gone wrong in shame and remorse the restraint of the mental faculties are not deceptive. When the restraint of the mental faculties are present, not gone wrong in the restraint of the mental faculties virtues are not deceptive When virtues are present, not gone wrong in virtues, concentration is not deceptive. When concentration is present, not gone wrong in concentration, knowledge and insight of seeing as it really is, is not deceptive. When the knowledge and vision of seeing as it really is, is present, not gone wrong in the knowledge and vision of seeing as it really is, turning away and disenchantment is not deceptive. When turning away and disenchanatment are present, not gone wrong in turning away and disenchantment, the knowledge and vision of release is not deceptive.

2. Sattasūriyasuttaṃ- Seven suns.

007.02. I heard thus. At one time The Blessed One was living in Ambapali's mango orchard. The Blessed One addressed the bhikkhus from there:

“Bhikkhus, determinations are impermanent not stable, there is nothing to comfort in them, so it is suitable that you should turn away from, get disentangled from and be releasd from all determinations.

Bhikkhus, the highest peak of the Himalayas, is eighty four thousand yojanas high from sea level. (a yojana is seven miles) Eighty four thousand yojanas in breadth. It is eighty four thousand yojanas deep down in the sea. Bhikkhus, after the lapse of many years, many hundreds of thousands of years there comes a time when it does not rain. When it does not rain, all seed and vegetation born plants such as medicinal grass, plants trees and forests dry up and wither and are no more. Bhikkhus, thus determinations are impermanent not stable, there is nothing to comfort in them, so it is suitable that you should turn away from, get disentangled from and be releasd from all determinations.

Bhikkhus, after the lapse of many years, many hundreds of thousands of years there comes a time when a second sun rises. When a second sun rises whatever streams, rivulets dry up and wither and are no more. Bhikkhus, thus determinations are impermanent not stable, there is nothing to comfort in them, so it is suitable that you should turn away from, get disentangled from and be releasd from all determinations.

Bhikkhus, after the lapse of many years, many hundreds of thousands of years there comes a time when a third sun rises. When a third sun rises, the great rivers such as the Ganges, yamuna, Aciravatie, Sarabhu and Mahi dry up and wither. Bhikkhus, thus determinations are impermanent not stable, there is nothing to comfort in them, so it is suitable that you should turn away from, get disentangled from and be releasd from all determinations.

Bhikkhus, after the lapse of many years, many hundreds of thousands of years there comes a time when a fourth sun rises. When a fourth sun rises, the great ponds mintained by the great rivers such as Anotatta, Sihapapata, Rathakara, Kannamunda, Kunala, Chadanta and Mandakini dry up and wither, they become no more. Bhikkhus, thus determinations are impermanent not stable, there is nothing to comfort in them, so it is suitable that you should turn away from, get disentangled from and be releasd from all determinations.

Bhikkhus, after the lapse of many years, many hundreds of thousands of years there comes a time when a fifth sun rises. When a fifth sun rises, the water in the great ocean recedes one hundred yojanas, two hundred yojanas three hundred yojanas, five hundred yojanas, six hundred yojanas and seven hundred yojanas. The water recedes to the height of seven, six, five, four, three, two palms and even one palm. The water recedes to the height of seven, six, five, four, three, two men, or even one man. It recedes to half the height of a man. It recedes to the knee depth of a man, to the ankle depth of a man. When the fifth sun rises there would not be water in the ocean to wet the fingers up to the knots. Bhikkhus, thus determinations are impermanent not stable, there is nothing to comfort in them, so it is suitable that you should turn away from, get disentangled from and be releasd from all determinations.

Bhikkhus, after the lapse of many years, many hundreds of thousands of years there comes a time when a sixth sun rises. When a sixth sun rises, the great earth and the peak of the Himalayas smokes, and gets filled with smoke. Like when something made by a potter is cooked. It smokes and gets filled up with smoke. In the same manner when a sixth sun rises, the great earth and the peak of the Himalayas smokes, and gets filled with smoke. Bhikkhus, thus determinations are impermanent not stable, there is nothing to comfort in them, so it is suitable that you should turn away from, get disentangled from and be releasd from all determinations.

Bhikkhus, after the lapse of many years, many hundreds of thousands of years there comes a time when a seventh sun rises. When a seventh sun rises, the great earth and the peak of the Himalayas blazes and catch fire. When the great earth and the peak of the Himalayas blaze and catch fire, flames tossed by the winds reach upto the world of Brahma. When the peak of the Himalaya mountain burns, peaks as high as a hundred yojanas, two hundred yojanas, three hundred yojanas, four hundred yojanas and five hundred yojanas crumble. Bhikkhus, when the earth and the Himalaya peak is burning ash or cream of ash is not evident. Bhikkhus, thus determinations are impermanent not stable, there is nothing to comfort in them, so it is suitable that you should turn away from, get disentangled from and be releasd from all determinations. Bhikkhus, when the earth and the Himalaya peak is burning, whatever divine sayings and beliefs be, they also get burnt and are no more, would attained right view remain?

Bhikkhus, in the past, there was a Teacher called Sunetta, one free of greed who helped to cross the ford. The Teacher Sunetta had innumerable hundreds of disciples .Bhikkhus, this Teacher taught, to be born in the world of Brahma. Those who completely knew the dispensation of Sunetta, after death, were born in a good state in the world of Brahma. Some of those who did not know the complete dispensation of Sunetta, after death, were born with those attached to the creation of others. Some attached to creation, soome with the happy ones, some with the Titan gods, some with the gods of the thirty-three and with the guardian gods. Others were born with high clans of warriors, Brahmins and householders.

Then it occured to the Teacher Sunetta. `It is not suitable for me to be born in the same plane as my disciples, after death, what if I develop loving kindness further.'

Then the Teacher Sunetta developed loving kindness for seven years. Having developed loving kindness for seven years, he did not come to this world for seven forward and backward world cycles. During the forward world cycles he was born a radiant god and during the backward world cycles was born in an empty Brahma paradise. There he was Brahma the supreme Lord, not conquered with sure insight wielding authority

There, he was Brahma, Brahma the great, the unconquered lord and master with sure insight, holding authority for seven timesṬhirty six times he was Sakka the kng of gods. Innumerable hundreds of times he was the righteous universal monarch, winning the four directions and establishing states. Bhikkhus, he was endowed with these seven jewels, such as the jewel of the wheel, the elephant, the horse, the jewel, the woman, the householder and the advisor. Bhikkhus, he had over a thousand courageous sons with valiant figures, for crushing foreign armies. They lived ruling over the earth righteously, without weapons as far as the limit of the ocean. Bhikkhus, that Teacher Sunetta with long life and long standing was not released from birth, decay, death, grief, lament, unpleasantness and displeasure, I say not released from unpleasantness.

What is the reason? For not realizing and experiencing four things.What four?

Not realizing and experiencing the virtues, concentration, wisdom and release of the noble ones. Now he has realized and experienced the virtues, concentration, wisdom and release of the noble ones. The craving to be is uprooted, the leader of being is destroyed. Now he has no more birth. The Blessed One further said:

Famous Gotama, has realized noble virtues, concentration, wisdom and release

And declaring the Teaching to end unpleasantness is mindfully extinguished.

3. Nagaropamasuttaṃ - Comparable to a city.

007.03. Bhikkhus, when the king of a bordering country protects his city with the seven accessory protections and provides the four kinds of support without a wish, for nothing and quickly. To this is said the king has protected the borderng city from external adverse enemies

How is the city protected with the seven accessory protections?

Here, bhikkhus, to the king of the bordering city there are pillars on strong foundations, well driven in, that they may not shiver. These are first protected with the seven accessory protections for internal protection and for external repulsion.

Again, bhikkhus, to the king of the bordering city there are ditches that are deep and broad These are secondly protected with the seven accessory protections for internal protection and for external repulsion.

Again, bhikkhus, to the king of the bordering city there is a path way built broad and high above. This is thirdly protected with the seven accessory protections for internal protection and for external repulsion.

Again, bhikkhus, to the king of the bordering city there are many weapons kept in stock arrows and missilesṬhese are fourthly protected with the seven accessory protections for internal protection and for external repulsion.

Again, bhikkhus, to the king of the bordering city there are many army personal living such as elephant riders, horse riders, charioteers, bowmen, tailors, cleaners of clothes, those who deal with food, dignified royal princes, special task forces and soldiers in occupation These are fifthly protected with the seven accessory protections for internal protection and for external repulsion.

Again, bhikkhus, to the king of the bordering city there is a wise gate keeper who stops the unknown from entering and allows the known to enter. This is sixthly protected with the seven accessory protections for internal protection and for external repulsion.

Again, bhikkhus, to the king of the bordering city there is a tall and broad embankment with well painted dwellings This is seventhly protected with the seven accessory protections for internal protection and for external repulsion.

What are the four kinds of supports provided without a wish, for nothing and quickly?

Here, bhikkhus, in the king's bordering city a lot of grass and firewood is accumulated so that any internal trembling would not be likely for a pleasant abiding and for external repulsion.

Again, bhikkhus, in the king's bordering city a lot of rice and corn is accumulated so that any internal trembling would not be likely for a pleasant abiding and for external repulsion .Again, bhikkhus, in the king's bordering city a lot of sesame, green grams, beans and other pulses are accumulated so that any internal trembling would not be likely for a pleasant abiding and for external repulsion.

Again, bhikkhus, in the king's bordering city a lot of medicine is accumulated such as ghee, butter, oil, honey, honey combes, and salt so that any internal trembling would not be likely for a pleasant abiding and for external repulsion.

Bhikkhus, these are the four kinds of supports provided without a wish, for nothing and quickly.

Bhikkhus, when the king of a bordering city protects the seven accessory protections and provides the four kinds of support without a wish, for nothing and quickly. To this is said the king has protected the neighbouring city from external adverse enemies. Bhikkhus, in the same manner, the noble disciple endowed with seven good things in the Teaching and becomes a gainer of the four higher states of the mind here and now, without a wish, for nothing and quickly, it is said that the noble disciple is beyond the power of Death. Endowed with what seven good things in the Teaching?

Bhikkhus, just as to the king of the bordering city there are pillars on strong foundations, well driven in, that they may not shiver, for internal protection and for external repulsion. In the same manner to the noble disciple, there is faith. He places faith in the enlightenment of The Blessed One. That Blessed One is ... re ... enlightened and blessed. Become a pillar of faith, the noble disciple dispels demerit and develops merit. Dispels the faulty and develops the non-faulty. Maintaining purity of self he is endowed with this first good thing in the Teaching.

Bhikkhus, just as to the king of the bordering city there are ditches that are deep and broad, for internal protection and for external repulsion. In the same manner the noble disciple is shameful. He becomes shameful of bodily, verbal, mental misbehaviour and demeritorious things. Bhikkhus, the noble disciple investigating with shame dispels demerit and develops merit. Dispelling the faulty develops the not faulty. Maintaining purity of self he is endowed with this seond good thing in the Teaching.

Bhikkhus, just as to the king of the bordering city there is a path way built broad and high above. for internal protection and for external repulsion. In the same manner the noble disciple is remorseful. He becomes remorseful of bodily, verbal, mental misbehaviour and demeritorious things. Bhikkhus, the noble disciple on the path of remorse dispels demerit and develops merit. Dispelling the faulty develops the not faulty. Maintaining purity of self he is endowed with this third good thing in the Teaching.

Bhikkhus, just as to the king of the bordering city there are many weapons kept in stock arrows and missiles, for internal protection and for external repulsion. In the same manner the noble disciple becomes learned ... re ... and penetratingly straightens his view. The learned noble disciple dispels demerit and develops merit. Dispelling the faulty develops the not faulty. Maintaining purity of self he is endowed with this fourth good thing in the Teaching.

Bhikkhus, just as to the king of the bordering city there are many army personal living such as elephant riders, horse riders, charioteers, bowmen, tailors, cleaners of clothes, those who deal with food, dignified royal princes, special task forces and soldiers in occupation for internal protection and for external repulsion, in the same manner the noble disciple abides with aroused effort to dispel demerit and to develop merit.Becomes firm with endeavour without giving up the aim in meritorlious things. With the forces of effort the noble disciple dispels demerit and develops meritḌispelling the faulty develops the not faulty. Maintaining purity of self he is endowed with this fifth good thing in the Teaching.

Bhikkhus, just as to the king of the bordering city there is a wise gate keeper who stops the unknown from entering and allows the known to enter, for internal protection and for external repulsion, in the same manner the noble disciple recalls with the highest prudence of things told and heard long ago. Bhikkhus, with the cleanser mindfulness the noble disciple dispels demerit and develops meritḌispelling the faulty develops the not faulty. Maintaining purity of self he is endowed with this sixth good thing in the Teaching.

Bhikkhus, just as to the king of the bordering city there is a tall and broad embankment with well painted dwellings, for internal protection and for external repulsion. The noble disciple becomes wise in the rising and fading of the five holding masses to penetrate and see for ending unpleasantness. Bhikkhus, the noble disciple endowed with the anointing of wisdom dispels demerit and develops merit. Dispelling the faulty develops the not faulty. Maintaining purity of self he is endowed with this seventh good thing in the Teaching.

What are the four higher states of the mind here and now, gained without a wish, for nothing and quickly

Bhikkhus, just as in the king's bordering city a lot of grass and firewood is accumulated so that any internal trembling would not be likely for a pleasant abiding and for external repulsion. In the same manner the noble disciple secluded from sensual desires ... re ... attains to the first higher state of mind for internal non-trembling, a pleasant abiding and for entering extinction.

Bhikkhus, just as in the king's bordering city a lot of rice and corn is accumulated so that any internal trembling would not be likely for a pleasant abiding and for external repulsion

In the same manner the noble disciple overcoming thoughts and discursive thoughts ... re ... abides in the second higher state of the mind, for internal non-trembling, a pleasant abiding and for entering extinction.

.Again, bhikkhus, in the king's bordering city a lot of sesame, green grams, beans and other pulses are accumulated so that any internal trembling would not be likely for a pleasant abiding and for external repulsion. In the same manner the noble disciple with equanimity to joy and disenchantment ... re ... abides in the third higher state of the mind for internal non-trembling, a pleasant abiding and for entering extinction.

Again, bhikkhus, in the king's bordering city a lot of medicine is accumulated such as ghee, butter, oil, honey, honey combes, and salt so that any internal trembling would not be likely for a pleasant abiding and for external repulsion.In the same manner the noble disciple dispelling pleasantness and unpleasantness and purifying the mind so that unpleasantness or pleasantness does not enter it, he abides in the fourth higher state of the mind, for internal non-trembling, a pleasant abiding and for entering extinction.

Of these four higher states of the mind, the pleasant abidings, he becomes a gainer without a wish, without difficulty and a gainer for nothing.

Bhikkhus, when the noble disciple is endowed with these seven good things and these four higher states of the mind without a wish, without difficulty, a gainer for nothing, it is said that the noble disciple has gone beyond death.

4. Dhammaññūsuttaṃ- Knowing the Teaching.

007.04. Bhikkhus, the bhikkhu endowed with seven things is reverential, ... re ... the incomparable field of merit for the world. What seven?

Here, bhikkhus, the bhikkhu knows the Teaching, the meanings, the self, the measure, the right time, the gathering and the individual here and beyond.

Bhikkhus, how does the bhikkhu know the Teaching?

Here, bhikkhus, the bhikkhu knows the Teaching in expositions, mixed prose and verse, in explanations, four lined verses, thus said sayings, birth stories, wonderful things and questions and answer expositions. Bhikkhus, if the bhikkhu did not know the Teahing in expositions, mixed verse and prose ... re ... and questions and answer expositions, he does not know the Teaching in this dispensation. When the bhikkhu knows the Teahing in expositions, mixed verse and prose ... re ... and questions and answer expositions, it is said he knows the Teaching in this dispensation.

Bhikkhus, how does the bhikkhu know the meanings?

Here, bhikkhus, the bhikkhu knows the meanings of this and other words heard. This is the meaning of these words and this is the meaning of these words. Bhikkhus, if the bhikkhu did not know the meanings of this and other words heard, as this is the meaning of these words and this is the meaning of these words, he does not know the meanings in this dispensaton. Bhikkhus, when the bhikkhu knows the meanings of this and other words heard. as this is the meaning of these words and this is the meaning of these words it is said he knows the meanings in this dispensation. This is knowing the Teaching and the meanings.

Bhikkhus, how does the bhikkhu know the self?

Here, bhikkhus, the bhikkhu knows the self as my attainments in faith, virtues, learnedness, benevolence, wisdom and understanding is this much. Bhikkhus, if the bhikkhu did not know the self as my attainments in faith, virtues, learnedness, benevolence, wisdom and understanding is this much, he would not know the self .in this dispensaton. Bhikkhus, when the bhikkhu knows the self, as my attainments in faith, virtues, learnedness, benevolence, wisdom and understanding, is this much. it is said he knows the self in this dispensation. This is knowing the Teaching, the meanings and the self.

Bhikkhus, how does the bhikkhu know the measure?

Here, bhikkhus, the bhikkhu knows the measure to accept robes, morsel food, dwellings and requisites when ill. Bhikkhus, if the bhikkhu did not know the measure to accept robes, morsel food, dwellings and requisites when ill, he does not know the measure in this dispensation. Bhikkhus, when the bhikkhu knows the measure to accept robes, morsel food, dwellings and requisites when ill, it is said he knows the measure in this dispensation. This is knowing the Teaching, the meanings the self and the measure.

Bhikkhus, how is knowing the right time?

Here, bhikkhus, the bhikkhu knows the right time to advise, this is the time to cross question, this is the time to apply the self, this is the time for seclusion.Bhikkhus, if the bhikkhu did not know the right time to advise as this is the time to cross question, this is the time to apply the self, this is the time for seclusion, he does not know the right time in the dispensation. Bhikkhus, when the bhikkhu knows the right time to advise as this is the time to cross question, this is the time to apply the self, this is the time for seclusion. it is said he knows the right time in this dispensation. This is knowing the Teaching, the meanings the self, the measure and the right time.

Bhikkhus, how is knowing the gathering?

Here, bhikkhus, the bhikkhu knows.- This is a gathering of warriors, a gathering of Brahmins, a gathering of householders, a gathering of recluses. Towards them the approaching, standing, acting, sitting, talking and becoming silent should be thus and thus respectively Bhikkhus, if the bhikkhu did not knowṭhis is a gathering of warriors, a gathering of Brahmins, a gathering of householders, a gathering of recluses. Towards them the approaching, standing, acting, sitting, talking and becoming silent should be thus and thus respectively. He does not know the gathering in the dispensation. Bhikkhus, when the bhikkhu knows this is a gathering of warriors, a gathering of Brahmins, a gathering of householders, a gathering of recluses. Towards them the approaching, standing, acting, sitting, talking and becoming silent should be thus and thus respectively

it is said he knows the gathering in this dispensation. This is knowing the Teaching, the meanings, the self, the measure, the right time and the gathering.

Bhikkhus, what is knowing the individual here and beyond?

Here, bhikkhus, the bhikkhu knows two individuals, one likes to see noble ones and the other does not like to see noble ones. The one who does not like to see noble ones is by that contemptible and the one who likes to see noble ones is by that praiseworthy.

The bhikkhu knows two individuals, one likes to listen to the Teaching, the other does not like to listen to the Teaching. The one who does not like to listen to the Teaching is by that contemptible and the one who likes to listen to the Teaching is by that praiseworthy.

The bhikkhu knows two individuals, one listens to the Teaching attentively, the other listens to the Teaching inattentively The one who listens to the Teaching inattentively is by that contemptible and the one who listens to the Teaching attentively is by that praiseworthy.

The bhikkhu knows two individuals that listen to the Teaching attentively. One bears the Teaching he had heard, the other does not bear the Teaching he had heard. The one who does not bear the Teaching is by that contemptible and the one who bears the Teaching is by that praiseworthy. .

The bhikkhu knows two individuals who bear the Teaching they have learnt. One of them searches the meanings in the Teaching and the other does not search meanings in the Teaching he had heard. The one who does not search meanings in the Teaching he had heard is by that contemptible and the one who searches meanings in the Teaching he had heard is by that praiseworthy.

The bhikkhu knows two individuals who search the meanings in the Teaching they have heard. One of them knows the meanings and the Teaching and falls to the method of living according to the Teaching. The other knowing the meanings and the Teaching does not fall to the method of living according to the Teaching and is comptible by that, and the other living according to the Teaching is praiseworthy by that.

The bhikkhu knows two individuals who know the meanings and the Teaching and have fallen to the method of living according to the Teaching. One of them has fallen to the method of searching his own good not the good of others. The other has fallen to the method of searching his own good and the good of others. The one fallen to the method of searching his own good is by that contemptible and the one fallen to the method of searching his own good and the good of others is by that praiseworthy. Bhikkhus, in this manner, the bhikkhu knows individuals here and beyond. Bhikkhus, the bhikkhu endowed with these seven things is reverential, worthy of hospitality ... re ... the incomparable field of merit for the world.

5. Pāricchattakasuttaṃ- The tree shading all round.

007.05. Bhikkhus, at the time the Paricchatta tree in the heaven of the thirty-three gods withers, the gods become joyful, thinking now the Kovilara tree is withering, very soon the tree will be full of leaves and foliage.

Bhikkhus, at the time the Paricchatta tree in the heaven of the thirty-three gods bear leaves and foliage, the gods become joyful, thinking now the Kovilara tree has leaves and foliage, very soon the tree will spread and spread.

Bhikkhus, at the time the Paricchatta tree in the heaven of the thirty-three gods spreads out, the gods become joyful, thinking now the Kovilara tree is spreading out, very soon it will be sharp and dry. .

Bhikkhus, at the time the Paricchatta tree in the heaven of the thirty-three gods becomes sharp and dry the gods become joyful, thinking now the Kovilara tree is sharp and dry, very soon the tree will fruit.

Bhikkhus, at the time the Paricchatta tree in the heaven of the thirty-three gods is ready to fruit, the gods become joyful, thinking now the Kovilara tree is ready to bring forth fruits, very soon the tree will be flowering

Bhikkhus, at the time the Paricchatta tree in the heaven of the thirty-three gods is flowering, the gods become joyful, thinking now the Kovilara tree is flowering, very soon the tree will be in full bloom.

Bhikkhus, at the time the Paricchatta tree in the heaven of the thirty-three gods is in full bloom , the gods of the thirty-three spend four months at the root of the Paricchatta Kovilara tree attended and endowed with the five strands of heavenly sensual pleasures

Bhikkhus, when the Paricchattatta Kovilara tree is in full bloom, it spreads out for fifty yojanas. The scent of the flowers pervades for a hundred yojans. Such is the majesty of the Paricchatta Kovilara tree

Bhikkhus, in the same manner, at the time the noble disciple thinks to leave the household and become homeless, he is like a withered leaf, as the Paricchatta Kovilara tree to the gods of the thirty-three.

Bhikkhus, at the time the noble disciple shaving head and beard and wearing yellow clothes leaves the household and becomes homeless, he is like a green leaf as the Paricchatta Kovilara tree to the gods of the thirty-three.

Bhikkhus, at the time the noble disciple secluded from sensual desires, ... re ... abides in the first higher state of the mind, the noble disciple spreads out, like the Paricchatta Kovilara tree to the gods of the thirty-three.

Bhikkhus, at the time the noble disciple overcoming thoughts and discursive thoughts, ... re ... abides in the second higher state of the mind, the noble disciple becomes sharp and dry like the Paricchatta Kovilara tree to the gods of the thirty-three.

Bhikkhus, at the time the noble disciple develops equanimity to joy and disenchantment, ... re ... abides in the third higher state of the mind, the noble disciple becomes the lord like the Paricchatta Kovilara tree to the gods of the thirty-three.

Bhikkhus, at the time the noble disciple dispelling pleasantness and unpleasantness, ... re ... abides in the fourth higher state of the mind, the noble disciple is sheathed like the Paricchatta Kovilara tree to the gods of the thirty-three.

Bhikkhus, at the time the noble disciple destroying desires, ... re ... by himself realizing abides he is completely bloomed like the Paricchatta Kovilara tree to the gods of the thirty-three.

At that time the earthly gods echo: The venerable one of this name, the co-associate of this name, who left the household and became homeless from this village or hamlet, destroying desires, the mind released from desires and released through wisdom, here and now by himself realizing abides. Hearing that sound of the earth gods, .reṭhe four guardian gods, ... re ... the gods of the thirty-three, ... re ... the Titan gods, ... re ... the gods of happiness, ... re ... gods attached to creating, ... re ... gods attached to creating others, .reṭhe gods in the world of Brahma,ṭhe venerable one of this name, the co-associate of this name, who left the household and became homeless from this village or hamlet, destroying desires, the mind released from desires and released through wisdom, here and now by himself realizing abides. Thus that very moment that sound reached up to the world of Brahma. Such is the power of the bhikkhu who has destroyed desires.

6. Sakkaccasuttaṃ- Revering.

007.06. To venerable Sāriputta, in his seclusion this thought and discursive thought arose. “The bhikkhu living revering and depending on what would dispel demerit and develop merit?"

Then it occured to venerable Sāriputta: “The bhikkhu abiding revering and depending on the Teacher, the Teaching, the Community of bhikkhus, the training, concentration, diligence and friendly welcome dispels demerit and develops merit,

Then it occured to venerable Sāriputta-"These things of mine are pure and very pure. What if I tell The Blessed One about them, they will become more pure. Like a man who got the possession of a very pure gold ornament and thought it should be shown to a goldsmith, so that its purity and worth would be much more.

Venerable Sāriputta getting up from his evening seclusion approached The Blessed One, worshipped and sat on a side and said : “Venerable sir, in my seclusion this thought and discursive thought arose to me. “The bhikkhu living revering and depending on what would dispel demerit and develop merit?"

Then venerable sir, it occured to me: “The bhikkhu abiding revering and depending on the Teacher, the Teaching, the Community of bhikkhus, the training, concentration, diligence and friendly welcome dispels demerit and develops merit,

It occured to me-"These things of mine are pure and very pure. What if I tell The Blessed One about them, they will become more pure. Like a man who got the possession of a very pure gold ornament and thought it should be shown to a goldsmith, so that its purity and worth would be much more.

Good! Sāriputta, the bhikkhu living revering and depending on the Teacher, the Teaching, the Community of bhikkhus, the training, concentration, diligence and friendly welcome dispels demerit and develops merit.

When this was said venerable Sāriputta said: Of this short exposition of The Blessed One I understand the detailed explanation. Venerable sir, it is not possible that the bhikkhu not honouring the Teacher would honour the Teaching. It is possible that if he does not honour the Teacher, he would neither honour the Teaching. .

Venerable sir, it is not possible that the bhikkhu not honouring the Teacher, or the Teaching. would honour the Community of bhyikkhus. It is possible that if he does not honour the Teacher and the Teaching. he would neither honour the Community of bhikkhus.

Venerable sir, it is not possible that the bhikkhu not honouring the Teacher, the Teaching. or the Community of bhikkhus would honour the training. It is possible that if he does not honour the Teacher, the Teaching, the Community of bhikkhus, he would neither honour the training.

Venerable sir, it is not possible that the bhikkhu not honouring the Teacher, the Teaching, the Community of bhikkhus, or the training, would honour concentration. It is possible that if he does not honour the Teacher, the Teaching, the Community of bhikkhus, and the training, he would neither honour concentration.

Venerable sir, it is not possible that the bhikkhu not honouring the Teacher, the Teaching, the Community of bhikkhus, the training, concentration or diligence would honour friendly welcome. It is possible that if he does not honour the Teacher, the Teaching, the Community of bhikkhus, the training, concentration or diligence he would neither honour friendly welcome

Venerable sir, this is the detailed exposition for the short exposiltion of The Blessed One.

Good! Sāriputta, this is the detailed exposition for my short exposition.

Sāriputta, it is not possible that the bhikkhu not honouring the Teacher would honour the Teaching. It is possible that if the bhikkhu does not honour the Teacher, he would neither honour the Teaching. .

Sāriputta, it is not possible that the bhikkhu not honouring the Teacher, or the Teaching. would honour the Community of bhikkhus. It is possible that if he does not honour the Teacher or the Teaching. he would neither honour the Community of bhikkhus.

Sāriputta, it is not possible that the bhikkhu not honouring the Teacher, the Teaching. or the Community of bhikkhus would honour the training. It is possible that if the bhikkhu does not honour the Teacher, the Teaching, the Community of bhikkhus, he would neither honour the training.

Sāriputta, it is not possible that the bhikkhu not honouring the Teacher, the Teaching, the Community of bhikkhus, or the training, would honour concentration. It is possible that if the bhikkhu does not honour the Teacher, the Teaching, the Community of bhikkhus, nor the training, he would neither honour concentration.

Sāriputta, it is not possible that the bhikkhu not honouring the Teacher, the Teaching, the Community of bhikkhus, the training, concentration or diligence would honour the friendly welcome. It is possible that if he does not honour the Teacher, the Teaching, the Community of bhikkhus, the training, concentration or diligence he would neither honour the friendly welcome

Sāriputta, this is the detailed expoition for my short exposition.

7. Bhāvanāsuttaṃ- Development.

007.07. Bhikkhus, to the bhikkhu not applied to development such thoughts as these may arise.- `O! my mind should be released from desires without holding to them.' but his mind is not released from desires. What is the reason? Because of its non-developed state. In what is it not developed?

In the four establishments of mindfulness, the four right endeavours, the four psychic powers, the five mental faculties, the five powers, the seven enlightenment factors and the Noble Eightfold Path.

Like to a hen when the eggs are not completely sat on, made ripe and developed in eight, ten or twelve places, this desire should arise- `O! my chicken should break the shell with the nails of their feet or with their beaks and be born again healthily.' Yet it is not possible that the chicken should break the shell with the nails of their feet or with their beaks and be born again healthily. What is the reason? There, bhikkhus, the hen has not completely sat on, made ripe and developed the eggs, in eight, ten or twelve places, and however much this desire should arise- `O! my chicken should break the shell with the nails of their feet or with their beaks and be born again healthily.' Yet it is not possible that the chicken should break the shell with the nails of their feet or with their beaks and be born again healthily. In the same manner bhikkhus, to the bhikkhu not applied to development, even if such thoughts as these may not arise.- `O! my mind should be released from desires without holding to them.' yet his mind is released from desires. What is the reason? Because of its developed state. In what is it developed?

In the four establishments of mindfulness, the four right endeavours, the four psychic powers, the five mental faculties, the five powers, the seven enlightenment factors and the Noble Eightfold Path.

Bhikkhus, to the bhikkhu applied to development even if such thoughts as these may not arise.- `O! my mind should be released from desires without holding to them.' yet his mind is released from desires. What is the reason? Because of its developed state. In what is it developed?

In the four establishments of mindfulness, the four right endeavours, the four psychic powers, the five mental faculties, the five powers, the seven enlightenment factors and the Noble Eightfold Path.

Like to a hen when the eggs are completely sat on, made ripe and developed in eight, ten or twelve places, this desire should arise- `O! my chicken should break the shell with the nails of their feet or with their beaks and be born again healthily.' It is possible that the chicken should break the shell with the nails of their feet or with their beaks and be born again healthily. What is the reason? There, bhikkhus, the hen has completely sat on, made ripe and developed the eggs, in eight, ten or twelve places, and even if this desire should not arise- `O! my chicken should break the shell with the nails of their feet or with their beaks and be born again healthily.' Yet it is possible that the chicken should break the shell with the nails of their feet or with their beaks and be born again healthily. In the same manner bhikkhus, to the bhikkhu applied to development, even if such thoughts as these may not arise.- `O! my mind should be released from desires without holding to them.' yet his mind is released from desires. What is the reason? Because of its developed state. In what is it developed?

In the four establishments of mindfulness, the four right endeavours, the four psychic powers, the five mental faculties, the five powers, the seven enlightenment factors and the Noble Eightfold Path.

Bhikkhus, just as a mason or his apprentice seeing the marks of the handle of the adze, finger marks and thumb marks, would not know, today I have rubbed off this number of marks, tomorrow this number will be rubbed off and afterwards this much, yet knowledge arises that they are rubbed off. In the same manner to the bhikkhu abiding in the development it does not occur, this number of my desires are destroyed today, this much tomorrow and afterwards this much, yet knowledge arises, that they are destroyed.

Bhikkhus, just as a ship gone to see storing water, after six months the water gets exhausted with the heat of the sun in Summer and overcome with the heated air and water collected from the rains deteriorates and becomes putrid quickly. In the same manner bhikkhus, to the bhikkhu applied to development, the bonds break off quickly and become putrid.

8. Aggikkhandhopamasuttaṃ - Comparable to a mass of fire.

007.08. I heard thus. At one time The Blessed One was touring the country of Kosala with a large Community of bhikkhus. When on the highway The Blessed One saw a huge mass of fire blazing and flaming and deviating from the path sat on a prepared seat at the root of a tree and addressed the bhikkhus-"Bhikkhus, do you see that huge mass of fire?"

“Yes, venerable sir."

“Bhikkhus, which is more noble, is it to embrace this huge mass of blazing fire, or to embrace the soft tender hands and feet of a warrior, a Brahmin, or a householder maiden and to sit or lie with her?" “Venerable sir, it is more noble to embrace the soft tender hands and feet of a warrior, a Brahmin, or a householder maiden and sit or lie with her. Venerable sir, it is unpleasant to embrace this huge mass of blazing fire and sit or lie with it."

“Bhikkhus, I announce and call your attention to it to show how it is more noble for an unvirtuous one, with evil things and actions similar to dirt and excreta, with undercover action, a non-recluse, with only a promise for recluseship a non- Brahmin, with only a promise to be a Brahmin, rotten inside and dripping filth, it is suitable to embrace this huge mass of blazing fire and sit or lie with it. What is the reason? Bhikkhus, on account of it he would meet death, or deathly unpleasantness and not decrease, loss and birth in hell

Bhikkhus, if the unvirtuous one with evil things and actions similar to dirt and excreta, with undercover action, a non-recluse, with only a promise for recluseship a non-Brahmin, with only a promise to be a Brahmin, rotten inside and dripping filth embraces the soft tender hands and feet of a warrior, a Brahmin, or a householder maiden and sit or lie with her, it will be for his unpleasantness for a long time, and after death for his loss, decrease and birth in hell.

“Bhikkhus, which is more noble, a strong man with a cord woven out of hair tightly wrapping round the knees and crushing the knees. Until it cuts the outer skin, the inner skin, the flesh, veins, bones and stops near the bone marrow, or endure the devotion of the warriors, Brahmins or householders of high clans?" “Venerable sir, it is more noble to endure the devotion of the warriors, Brahmins and householders."Venerable sir, it is unpleasant a strong man with a cord woven out of hair tightly wrapping round the knees and crushing the knees until the outer skin, the inner skin, the flesh, veins, bones are cut and stops near the bone marrow. "

“Bhikkhus, I announce and call your attention to it, to show how it is more noble, a strong man with a cord woven out of hair tightly wrapping round the knees and crushing the knees until the outer skin, the inner skin, the flesh, veins, bones are cut and stops near the bone marrow. What is the reason? Bhikkhus, on account of it he would meet death, or deathly unpleasantness and not decrease, loss and birth in hell after death.

Bhikkhus, if the unvirtuous one with evil things and actions similar to dirt and excreta, with undercover action, a non-recluse, with only a promise for recluseship a non- Brahmin, with only a promise to be a Brahmin, endured the devotion of ... re ... it will be for his unpleasantness for a long time, and after death for his loss, decrease and birth in hell.

“Bhikkhus, which is more noble, a strong man with a sharp sword sharpened in oil giving a blow behind the back, or enduring the devotion with clasped hands of the warriors, Brahmins or householders of high clans?" “Venerable sir, it is more noble to endure the devotion with clasped hands of the warriors, Brahmins and householders." Venerable sir, it is unpleasant a strong man with a sharp sword sharpened in oil giving a blow behind the back"

“Bhikkhus, I announce and call your attention to it to show how it is more noble, a strong man with a sharp sword sharpened in oil giving a blow behind the back. "What is the reason? Bhikkhus, on account of it he would meet death, or deathly unpleasantness and not decrease, loss and birth in hell after death.

Bhikkhus, if the unvirtuous one with evil things and actions similar to dirt and excreta, with undercover action, a non-recluse, with only a promise for recluseship a non- Brahmin, with only a promise to be a Brahmin, endures the devotions of ... re ... with clasped hands it will be for his unpleasantness for a long time, and after death for his loss, decrease and birth in hell.

“Bhikkhus, which is more noble, a strong man with a blazing iron sheet wrapping the body or partaking the robes offered out of faith by warriors, Brahmins or householders of high clans?" “Venerable sir, it is more noble to partake the robes offered by the warriors, Brahmins and householders of high clans." Venerable sir, it is unpleasant a strong man with a blazing iron sheet wrapping the body"

“Bhikkhus, I announce and call your attention to it to show how it is more noble, a strong man with a blazing iron sheet wrapping the body, What is the reason? Bhikkhus, on account of it he would meet death, or deathly unpleasantness and not decrease, loss and birth in hell after death.

Bhikkhus, if the unvirtuous one with evil things and actions similar to dirt and excreta, with undercover action, a non-recluse, with only a promise for recluseship a non- Brahmin, with only a promise to be a Brahmin, partook robes offered out of faith by warriors Brahmins and housholders of high clans, it will be for his unpleasantness for a long time, and after death for his loss, decrease and birth in hell.

“Bhikkhus, which is more noble, a strong man with an iron stake causing the mouth to be opened and putting in the mouth a burning ball of metals which burns the lips, the mouth, the tongue, the throat, the chest, the insides and burning the large intestines, it coming out or partake the morsel food offered out of faith by the warriors, Brahmins or householders of high clans?" “Venerable sir, it is more noble to partake the morsel food offered out of faith by the warriors, Brahmins and householders." Venerable sir, it is unpleasant a strong man with an iron stake causing the mouth to be opened and putting in the mouth a burning ball of metals which burns the lips, the mouth, the tongue, the throat, the chest, the insides and burning the large intestines coming out. "

“Bhikkhus, I announce and call your attention to it to show how it is more noble, a strong man with an iron stake causing the mouth to be opened and putting in the mouth a burning ball of metals which burns the lips, the mouth, the tongue, the throat, the chest, the insides and burning the large intestines coming out what is the reason? Bhikkhus, on account of it he would meet death, or deathly unpleasantness and not decrease, loss and birth in hell

Bhikkhus, if the unvirtuous one with evil things and actions similar to dirt and excreta, with undercover action, a non-recluse, with only a promise for recluseship a non- Brahmin, with only a promise to be a Brahmin, partook morsel food offered out of faith by warriors, Brahmins, and householders of high clans, it will be for his unpleasantness for a long time, and after death for his loss, decrease and birth in hell.

“Bhikkhus, which is more noble, a strong man taking you by the head or body being made to sit on a blazing chair or sleep on a blazing bed or partaking beds and seats offered out of faith by the warriors, Brahmins or householders of high clans?" “Venerable sir, it is more noble to partake beds and seats offered out of faith by the warriors, Brahmins and householders." Venerable sir, it is unpleasant a strong man taking you by the head or body being made to sit on a blazing chair or sleep on a blazing bed "

“Bhikkhus, I announce and call your attention to it, to show how it is more noble, a strong man taking you by the head or body being made to sit on a blazing chair or sleep on a blazing bed what is the reason? Bhikkhus, on account of it he would meet death, or deathly unpleasantness and not decrease, loss and birth in hell after death.

Bhikkhus, if the unvirtuous one with evil things and actions similar to dirt and excreta, with undercover action, a non-recluse, with only a promise for recluseship a non- Brahmin, with only a promise to be a Brahmin, partook beds and seats offered out of faith by warriors, Brahmins, and householders of high clans, it will be for his unpleasantness for a long time, and after death for his loss, decrease and birth in hell.

“Bhikkhus, which is more noble, a strong man taking you by the feet, upside down dipping you into a boiling, blazing, molten vessel-cooking in it with the molten foam when diving in, coming up and going across or partaking dwellings offered out of faith by the warriors, Brahmins or householders of high clans?" “Venerable sir, it is more noble to partake dwellings offered out of faith by the warriors, Brahmins and householders of high clans." Venerable sir, it is unpleasant a strong man taking you by the feet upside down being dipped into a boiling, blazing, molten vessel-cooking in it with the molten foam when diving in, coming up and going across"

“Bhikkhus, I announce and call your attention to it, to show how it is more noble, a strong man taking you by the feet, upside down dipping you into a boiling, blazing, molten vessel-cooking in it with the molten foam when diving in, coming up and going across What is the reason? Bhikkhus, on account of it he would meet death, or deathly unpleasantness and not decrease, loss and birth in hell, after death.

Bhikkhus, if the unvirtuous one with evil things and actions similar to dirt and excreta, with undercover action, a non-recluse, with only a promise for recluseship a non- Brahmin, with only a promise to be a Brahmin, partook dwellings offered out of faith by warriors, Brahmins, and householders of high clans, it will be for his unpleasantness for a long time, and after death for his loss, decrease and birth in hell.

“Therefore, bhikkhus, you should train in this manner. Whosever robes, morsel food, dwellings and requisites when ill we partake may it be of great benefit to them. May my going forth be productive fruitful and with results. It is suitable for one seeing his own good to be diligent. It is suitable for one seeing the good of others to be diligent.

It is suitable for one seeing his own and others good to be diligent.

The Blessed One said thus When this expoition was done, about sixty bhikkhus vomitted hot blood, about sixty bhikkhus came down to lay life and about sixty bhikkhus released their minds from desires.

9. Sunettasuttaṃ- Sunetta.

007.09. Bhikkhus, in the past there was a teacher named Sunetta, a ford maker free of sensual greed. Sunetta had innumerable hundreds of disciples to whom he declared the Teaching to be born in the world of Brahma. Bhikkhus, those who were not pleased in the Teaching to be born in the world of Brahma, after death went to loss, to decrease were born in hell

Those who were pleased in the Teaching to be born in the world of Brahma, after death went to a good state, to increase were born in heaven.

Bhikkhus, in the past there was a teacher named, Mugapakkha, ... re ... Aranemi, ... re ... Kuddalaka, ... re ... Hatthipala, ... re ... Jotipala ... re ... Araka, a ford maker free of sensual greed. Araka had innumerable hundreds of disciples to whom he declared the Teaching to be born in the world of Brahma. Bhikkhus, those who were not pleased in the Teaching to be born in the world of Brahma, after death went to loss, to decrease were born in hell

Those who were pleased in the Teaching to be born in the world of Brahma, after death went to a good state, to increase were born in heaven.

Bhikkhus, if someone with a defiled mind, rebukes these seven teachers, the ford makers free of sensual greed with innumerable hundreds of disciples, he would accure much demerit .If someone rebukes one with right view he accrues much more demerit. What is the reason? Bhikkhus, I do not know of a higher appeasement outside this dispensation as I see among these co-associates.

Bhikkhus, therefore you should train. We will not defile our minds towards the co-associates in the holy life.

10. Arakasuttaṃ -Teacher Araka.

007.10. Bhikkhus, in the past there was a teacher named Araka, a ford maker free of sensual greed. Araka had innumerable hundreds of disciples to whom he declared this Teaching: Brahmin, life is trifling to humans, very short, has a lot of unpleasantness, a lot of worries. You should become wise, should do merit, the holy life should be lived, to the born death is inevitable.

Brahmin, when the sun rises the dew drops on the tip of grass go away, not able to stand long. Life comparable to dew drops is trifling to humans, very short, has a lot of unpleasantness, a lot of worries. You should become wise, should do merit, the holy life should be lived, to the born, death is inevitable.

Brahmin, when large drops of rain fall they quickly disappear not able to stand long. Life comparable to large drops of rain, is trifling to humans, very short, has a lot of unpleasantness, a lot of worries. You should become wise, should do merit, the holy life should be lived, to the born death is inevitable.

Brahmin, a quarrel in the water is quickly over, does not stand long. Life comparable to a quarrel in the water, is trifling to humans, very short, has a lot of unpleasantness, a lot of worries. You should become wise, should do merit, the holy life should be lived, to the born death is inevitable

Brahmin, the swiftly flowing river coming from the mountains takes with it all the collection, it does not have a moment, an inkling or a particle of time to turn back. Life comparable to the swiftly flowing river coming from the mountains, to humans, very short, has a lot of unpleasantness, a lot of worries. You should become wise, should do merit, the holy life should be lived, to the born death is inevitable

Brahmin, a strong man would collect the spit at the top of his tongue and quickly spit it out. Life comparable to some spit collected at the top of the tongue to be quickly spit out, is trifling to humans, very short, has a lot of unpleasantness, a lot of worries. You should become wise, should do merit, the holy life should be lived, to the born death is inevitable

Brahmin, a mass of flesh when put in an iron pot that was heated through out the day quickly shrinks is unable to stand long. Life comparable to a mass of flesh, ... re ... is trifling to humans, very short, has a lot of unpleasantness, a lot of worries. You should become wise, should do merit, the holy life should be lived, to the born death is inevitable

Brahmin, cattle taken to be slaughtered, with every step they are approaching their death Life comparable to cattle to be slaughterd is trifling to humans, very short, has a lot of unpleasantness, a lot of worries. You should become wise, should do merit, the holy life should be lived, to the born death is inevitable

At that time humans enjoyed a life span of sixty thousand years and girls lived in their parental home for five hundred years.At that time humans had only six ailments, cold, heat, hunger, thirst, and the need to urinate and excrete.

Bhikkhus, that teacher Araka was teaching humans with such a long life span and such long standing and such few ailments. That life is trifling to humans, very short, has a lot of unpleasantness, a lot of worries. You should become wise, should do merit, the holy life should be lived, to the born death is inevitable. Bhikkhus, at this time if someone enjoys long life, it is a hundred years or a little more, Someone living a hundred years has three hundred seasons, a hundred Winters, a hundred Summers, and a hundred Rains. Bhikkhus, someone living a hundred seasons, lives only one thousand two hundred months, four hundred months of the Winter, four hundred months of the Summer and four hundred months of the Rains. One living one thousand two hundred months has two thousand four hundred fortnights. It consists of eight hundred Winter fortnights, eight hundred Summer fortnights and eight hundred Rains fortnights. Someone living twentyfour thousand fortnights has thirty six thousand nights. Consisting of twelve thousand Winter nights, twelve thousand Summer nights and twelve thousand Rains nights. One living thirtysix thousand nights eats seventy two thousand meals -It comes to twenty four thousand Winter meals, twentyfour thousand Summer meals and twenty four thousand Rains meals, together with mother's milk drunk and the missed meals.

The missed meals are when having a monkey sleep he does not eat, when unhappy he does not eat, when ill he does not eat, and observing the full moon night he does not eat.

Bhikkhus, I have innumerated the life span, seasons, months, fortnights, nights and days the number of meals of a human who lives a hundred years. I have done what should be done by the Teacher to the disciples out of compassion. These are the roots of trees and empty houses. Concentrate! Do not have remorse later. This is our advise to you.